Data Tracking in SCORM Mobile Learning Course (#mlearning)
We all recognize the importance of tracking data in mobile learning, no matter learners consume the mobile learning content online or offline, those data shall be synced back to LMS whenever the internet connection is available. Although there is a new standard – Experience API (xAPI) aiming to bring tracking to the next level, but it will not replace SCORM.
What is SCORM?
SCORM is composed of three sub-specifications: (from Rustici Software site)
- The Content Packaging section specifies how content should be packaged and described. It is based primarily on XML.
- The Sequencing section specifies how the learner can navigate between parts of the course (SCOs). It is defined by a set of rules and attributes written in XML.
SCORM specifies that content should be packaged in a self-contained directory or a ZIP file. This delivery is called a Package Interchange File (PIF). The PIF must always contain an XML file named imsmanifest.xml (the “manifest file”) at the root. The manifest file contains all the information the LMS needs to deliver the content. The manifest divides the course into one or more parts called SCOs. SCOs can be combined into a tree structure that represents the course, known as the “activity tree”. The manifest contains an XML representation of the activity tree, information about how to launch each SCO and (optionally) metadata that describes the course and its parts.
The sequencing specification allows the content author to govern how the learner is allowed to navigate between SCOs and how progress data is rolled up to the course level. Sequencing rules are represented by XML within the course’s manifest. Sequencing operates on a tracking model that closely parallels the CMI data reported by SCOs during run-time. Sequencing rules allow the content author to do things like:
- Determine which navigational controls the LMS should provide to the user (previous/next buttons, a navigable table of contents, etc).
- Specify that certain activities must be completed before others (prerequisites).
- Make some parts of a course count more than others toward a final status or score (creating optional sections or providing question weighting).
- Randomly select a different subset of available SCOs to be delivered on each new attempt (to enable test banking, for instance).
- Take the user back to instructional material that was not mastered (remediation).
Data tracking in mobile courses authored by Claro
There are a number of Learning Object (LO), course and testing data from Claro courses that are tracked by a SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) package and conveyed to a LMS. (following the Run-Time specifications)
The following data are tracked: (from dominKnow KnowledgeBase)
- The ID in the SCORM manifest file is unique for every package created.
- The Pre-test score. Test scores are sent as a percentage score value, e.g., 50 (as in 50%).
- The Post-test score.
- SCORM only allows for one final score to be recorded, so if both the Pre-test and Post-test are taken, the Post-test score will override the Pre-test.
- Pass or Fail
- Individual items:
- Question ID: This is a unique identifier. Due to random options this won’t necessarily mean that question one is ID 1.
- The Question “Body” is the “description” sent in a SCORM report (This is only available with SCORM2004). This is usually seen as the “question”. The Title and Opener information in Claro is NOTcommunicated to SCORM.
- Possible answers or “Choices”.
- Question type (True or False, Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, Multiple Pull-down).
- Answer or choice selected by the user. The learner’s response.
- Correct answer(s).
- Result: Correct or incorrect
- Latency: How long the learner spent on the question.
- Weighting: Each question is weighted equally.
- Learner location in the course (bookmark progress such as exit and entry location)
- LO and Course status (incomplete, complete).
Comparison of statuses sent from course content and tests in SCORMversions
1: test not taken at all or taken and failed but additional test attempts are allowed
2: test failed and no additional attempts are allowed
NOTE: We recommend you use SCORM version 2004 when publishing courses with drag and drop questions. SCORM 2004 allows an object name and uses the title in its reporting. Make sure to title all drag and drop elements so the report identifies them correctly. If you use SCORM 1.2, depending on how strict the LMS is, the title may be shortened to a sequence of numbers based on when the element was added.