Seamless Learning Design and MOOC (#mlearning)
There is a vast area of research to be explored related to seamless learning in MOOC. A paper authored by Inge de Waard et al. reviews researches in the related field, because they believe seamless learning can perfectly complement what ‘s lack in MOOC setting.
Inge de Waard, The Open University, United Kingdom
Nilgun Ozdamar Keskin, Anadolu University, Turkey
Apostolos Koutropoulos, University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA
The authors of this chapter have reviewed the concept of seamless learning for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) based on the distillation of key factors from papers discussing and describing the mobile seamless learning (MSL) concept. The MSL concept was used as a starting point to explore how MOOC could be prepared or optimized for seamless learning. The idea behind the MSL framework from Wong and Looi (2011,), updated by Wong, Sharples, Hwang,Looi and Ogata (2013), is to come to a set of characteristics that, when addressed, will result in seamless learning for students and learners. These are the ten characteristics: (and the idea extended by this paper)
- MSL 1: encompassing formal and informal learning (adding lifelong learning)
- MSL 2: encompassing personal and social learning (adding collaborative learning)
- MSL 3: across time
- MSL 4: across locations
- MSL 5: ubiquitous access to learning resources (adding the cloud-based learning resources)
- MSL 6: encompassing physical and digital worlds (adding learning across contexts)
- MSL 7: combined use of multiple device types
- MSL 8: seamless switching between multiple learning tasks (adding sharing learning objects)
- MSL 9: knowledge synthesis (adding learner-centered learning)
- MSL 10: encompassing multiple pedagogical or learning activity models, facilitated by teachers (adding self-directed learning)
In the research literature review, the method proposed by Uosaki et al. (2013) is of special value for the implementation practice.
Uosaki et al. (2013) put forward ubiquitous seamless mobile learning guidelines for a learning-log system called SCROLL (System for capturing and Reminding of Learning Log). This approach is of interest for seamless learning in a MOOC, because it offers insights into sharing learning objects between learners, as they are created by the learners. Such learning objects emerge in MOOC as blog-posts with reflections on learning brought forth by what is heard, seen, read, or interacted with in MOOCs, as well as overviews created by learners. Wong (2013) also referred to students creating new artifacts that arose from older photos, or even picking and mixing several photos to create more artifacts. In these cases the students had transformed their smartphones from a productive tool into a cognitive tool.
This conclusion prompted Wong (2013) to see this as a potentially new characteristic of seamless learning, on top of the ten major characteristics of seamless learning that Wong and Looi (2011) have expounded. The authors of this chapter see this remixing of content and objects as a typical part of MOOC, were participants take objects from other learners and/or facilitators and mix them to later reshare them, or as is known in MOOCs as “feed forward,” as a learning object to be commented on or worked with (Downes, 2005; Siemens, 2005)
In the Uosaki et al.(2013) project the users can register what they have learned anytime, anywhere. This registered object is called a ubiquitous learning log object (ULLO). An interesting facet of this ULLO is that the learners can not only share their ULLO, but that other users can re-log them to their own pages. This makes it transmittable between learners.
Spaced learning is also part of the Uosaki et al. (2013) project, as it offers automatically created quizzes based on the ULLOs. These quizzes are then repeated until the right answer is given. Four months after successfully taking the quizzes, an automated quiz is forwarded to the learners in order to put the information in their long-term memories.
The SCROLL system helps users to share and remind ubiquitous learning experiences. It’s a pedagogical design leveraging mobile computing technologies, we believe more possibilities can be built on this method. More information about this paper can be found here: Guidelines on Implementing Successful Seamless Learning Environments.